If you’re in the market for a new mountain bike, one of the first things you’ll likely consider is what frame material you want for your new ride. This is the base of your bike and will affect your riding experience in several ways.
These days the choice of frame material is really between carbon fiber or aluminum. The less popular steel and titanium materials have all but disappeared from the marketplace, and are typically only found on custom bikes for riders who are much taller or heavier than the average rider. Steel is too heavy, titanium is too expensive. Aluminum and carbon have found the sweet spot of weight and cost, and now rule the market.
But which one is better: a carbon or aluminum mountain bike? And is the added cost of a carbon frame really worth the investment?
As with most products, there isn’t a simple answer to this. How you use your bike, what you hope to get out of it, and your skill and income level will greatly influence your choice. When broken down into categories of weight, feel, performance and durability, carbon takes the top prize, but it comes with a hefty price tag that isn’t feasible for everyone.
If you can afford a carbon frame, you’ll likely be extremely happy with your choice, but if you can’t there are still plenty of great options. Purchasing a well-made, higher-end aluminum frame is likely better than buying a cheaper carbon frame.
Let’s compare carbon and aluminum frames in more detail to see if the investment in a carbon frame is the right choice for you.
Carbon frames are lighter. This is a fact. If you’re looking for the lightest possible frame, you will want to purchase a well-made carbon fiber lightweight frame.
The idea that a lighter bike equals greater performance, however, is only true to a certain extent. If you’re a competitive rider, you’ll likely want every possible advantage to improve your performance, and having a well-tuned bike that’s as light as possible will be of utmost importance. If you’re a hardcore, non-competitive rider, it might have just as much importance to you personally, particularly on those uphill climbs, and will be well worth the additional cost.
However, if you’re new to mountain biking or take a more moderate approach to it, you might find that more training, upping your skill level, or adding some custom components can help as much as or more than taking a pound off the frame of your bike.
Many mountain bikers find that a lighter frame allows them to more easily maneuver and manipulate their bike around corners and through demanding terrain and rough roads, but other riders look for a more rugged and forgiving frame, particularly for downhill riding.
If you’re looking for the lightest frame possible, carbon can’t be beat, but it comes at a price. Be wary of cheaper carbon frames as they are likely not as well made, and some may even be heavier than their aluminum counterparts due to filler materials. Weight difference is not the only defining factor when it comes to performance and enjoyment of your mountain bike, and should not be the sole factor when deciding which frame material is right for you.
Winner: The lighter weight of a carbon frame can’t be beat.
How your bike feels when you ride it is probably the most important factor for you. It certainly is for me. The weight of your frame contributes to the feel of your ride, but aspects such as dampening and torsional stiffness will be of far greater consequence. A carbon frame offers more in both departments here. Keep in mind that swapping out components can often have a great effect on the feel of your ride as well.
Dampening, which reduces vibrations and smooths out the feel of your ride, tends to be greater in carbon fiber frames, while aluminum typically passes a bit more of the harshness of the trail or road onto the rider. Dampening allows you to ride in comfort for longer, and may even allow you to ride faster and with greater precision.
If a carbon frame is out of your budget, switching to a carbon seat post and/or carbon handlebars can offer some dampening to your aluminum bike frame. Bar ends for mountain bikes have also been known to help with vibrations.
You want a certain amount of stiffness in the material of your bike to ensure that the power you’re putting into your mountain bike pedals is being transferred into your rear wheel to help propel you. If your frame is too soft, or has too much flex, you’ll lose some of this forward momentum and your ride might feel more exhausting and likely a bit frustrating.
If your bike is too stiff, however, you’ll feel every bump and rock in the trail and your ride will be harsh and punishing.
So what you actually want is stiffness in certain areas and compliance in others to give you a snappy, responsive, and somewhat smoother ride.
Carbon frames are made from carbon fibers, and with a customized layout of these fibers, carbon bikes are designed to be stiff in one direction or particular area and compliant in others. This allows carbon frames to be tuned to extreme precision and to be as efficient and responsive as possible. When combined with the lightweight nature of a carbon frame, the result is a higher-performance, often more enjoyable and competitive ride.
Aluminum is no slouch, though. With certain advances in technology, such as hydroforming (using hydraulic fluid at high pressure to mold or form metal), many frames are now built with varying tube shapes allowing them to mimic the customization of carbon.
Varying thicknesses of aluminum tubing are used to create the lateral stiffness and vertical compliance that riders desire. This has significantly closed the comfort and performance gap between aluminum and carbon frames, but when all is said and done, carbon still can’t be beat. The ability of manufacturers to finely tune the fibers of a carbon frame just can’t be replicated by the aluminum process. Not yet, anyway.
Overall, the feel of your bike is extremely personal and there are many things you can do to adjust and customize it. If you can afford it, a well-made carbon frame will give you a head start. But if you have a great aluminum bike frame, there are other steps you can take to adjust the comfort of your ride.
If you’re looking for a smoother ride, you might find that slightly wider tires and lower air pressure will get the job done.
You might want to try a different seat or seat post, a dropper post, or more compliant handlebars.
If you’re unsure what you need, visit your local bike shop, tell them what you’re struggling with or hoping to achieve, and see what they recommend.
Customizing your ride until it feels just right might take some experimenting, but if mountain biking is something you do regularly, fine-tuning your setup can make all the difference to the comfort of your ride.
Winner: Carbon wins once again for it’s dampening effects, torsional stiffness, and ability to be finely tuned.
This is a tough category as there are so many factors that go into the performance of your bike, and one of them is you.
You can have the lightest, snappiest frame that money can buy, but if you’re out of shape or out of practice, you likely won’t be winning any races.
Just as with comfort, switching out components can also greatly influence the performance of your bike, but in most instances a carbon frame is going to give you a more responsive and playful ride. This is due to the fine-tuning I mentioned earlier.
The torsional stiffness of carbon bikes ensures your kinetic efforts go where they are most useful, and combined with the lighter weight of carbon frames the result is a snappier, more responsive, and easier-to-maneuver ride. When combined with the dampening effect of carbon frames, they really just can’t be beat.
One exception to this is downhill mountain biking, where aluminum frames are often still favored.
Many downhill riders prefer the added weight on their frames, and they find that aluminum has a tendency to absorb a bit more of the ‘chatter’ on rugged or rough terrain and give them a bit more control. That being said, there are now extremely durable and high-performance downhill frames being made from carbon.
Winner: A tighter race, but carbon comes out on top yet again, offering a snappier, more enjoyable ride.
The idea that carbon is delicate and breaks easily is a myth. Carbon actually has a greater strength-to-weight ratio than aluminum and is both more durable and easily repairable. There are situations in which a carbon fiber bike frame can be damaged beyond repair, but this would require a crash so severe that you’d hope to never experience it.
Carbon Fiber Frames
Carbon frames are susceptible to scratches and cracks, and if you take a harsh tumble or your bike gets into some mischief while locked up or stored somewhere, carbon frames can absolutely be damaged. They can, however, be quite easily repaired.
Carbon frames also have a nearly infinite fatigue life, which means that without experiencing any undue impact they can last for years without showing any signs of age. You might want to level up to a new model if you’re a mountain biking enthusiast, but you won’t need to upgrade your bike due to it wearing out over time.
When you factor this potential lifespan into the higher price tag, it tells a slightly different story.
Mountain bikes built with an aluminum frame tend to be a bit more forgiving. They can take a good hit and keep on ticking. This is partly why they’re a more popular choice with downhill mountain bikers, who tend to be a bit rougher on their bikes and put them through more intensive use.
Where carbon frames tend to bounce off impact, aluminum absorbs impact, both in the form of dents and through shock absorption. Over time this can lead to stress fractures that weaken the entire frame and may ultimately make it unsafe to ride.
Aluminum is not as easily repairable as carbon, and over time aluminum frames will soften, losing some of their snap and responsiveness.
The upside is that they are cheaper to replace when damaged and many avid riders don’t keep their bikes long enough to experience this softening effect.
Both carbon fiber and aluminum frames can obviously get damaged, and although it’s easier to spot on aluminum frames (as damage tends to present in the form of a dent) it’s always important to check your bike over thoroughly after any sort of collision or impact.
To check your carbon frame for damage, run a clean rag along the tubes. If the cloth snags, you’ve got loose fibers and you should take it in for repairs. If you don’t feel any loose fibers, give your tubes a tap at the point of impact. If you hear a dull clunking sound, you may have damage. If you get a clean, crisp ‘ting,’ you’re probably good to go.
Either way, if your bike has experienced a severe impact, you’ll want to get it checked out by a professional to ensure it’s safe to ride.
Winner: Carbon bikes are easily repairable and have an infinite fatigue life. If your carbon frame doesn’t undergo a catastrophic accident, it should perform as well in 20 years as it does today.
As we’ve seen, carbon frames win out in most categories. Their lighter weight and performance can’t be beat, and in most situations they tend to be more durable and make for a more comfortable ride.
But they aren’t cheap. They can, in some cases, be well over a thousand dollars more than their aluminum counterparts. This is a substantial difference and definitely something to consider.
You can find cheaper carbon frames, but they tend to be made with fillers that can make them heavier and of a much lower quality, so don’t expect the same performance or durability at the lower end.
So is an expensive carbon bike worth it? This depends on several factors.
First off, can you afford it? If you can, then heck yeah, go for it, you won’t regret it.
If cost is more of a factor, you might want to consider how you intend to use your bike and whether you’re going for the cool fancy toy that’s more likely to sit in your garage and only get pulled out for the rare spring ride.
If you’re an avid rider that’s looking to up your performance and make your setup more comfortable for long-haul rides and adventures, a carbon frame might well be worth the investment, particularly when you factor in the longer lifespan and extended high performance.
If a new carbon mountain bike is a bit out of your price range, you might want to consider buying just a carbon frame and swapping out the existing components from your current bike. Or conversely, perhaps purchasing a higher-end aluminum frame and adding a few choice carbon components to it will give you the upgrade you’re looking for while working within your budget.
Winner: For cost, aluminum wins at the outset. When you factor in lifespan, however, an argument could certainly be made for carbon, but only if you intend to use the same bike for longer than 7-10 years. If you have a tendency to be rough on your mountain bike or upgrade with frequency, a carbon version is going to be consistently more expensive.
For your convenience, here’s a chart that shows the specific advantages of the major bike frame materials:
With advances in technology, aluminum frames are closing the gap on both comfort and performance, but overall, carbon frames still can’t be beat. When you factor in their potential to last a lifetime, I’d definitely say a carbon frame is well worth the investment. But an investment it surely is.
Swapping out just your frame or adding some custom components can be great alternatives. If your budget is tight, or if you don’t intend to use your bike with regularity or intensity, an aluminum frame might do you just fine, but for my money it’s carbon all the way.